Ever since the dawn of our species, we’ve told stories.
We’ve sung them, told them around campfires, painted them on cave walls, drew them on clay pots and canvases, woven them in tapestries and carved them into stone. Eventually we wrote them down.
Today, we share stories via sticky notes, podcasts, town halls, planning meetings and daily scrums.
Science indicates that our brains become more active, more engaged when we hear or tell a narrative. Could it be that as a species we are hardwired for a good yarn?Storytelling is the oldest way of passing along information... - Jurgen Appelo Click To Tweet
So let’s explore stories in agile software development, and how they impact continuous improvement and organizational change.
One of the first kinds of stories we encounter in agile development is the “user story.”
The simplicity of the composition “As a <type of user, “Actor” or “Persona”>, I want <some action> so that <some goal/achievement>” belies its power.”
A well-told user story starts a conversation. And that discussion eventually leads to a dev team masterfully crafting ones and zeros into an increment of customer value.
I believe a big part of this “magic” happens because the team is able to develop empathy with the persona through the open nature of a user story. That understanding then helps drive decisions and solutions that will satisfy the end user–one of the main characters in the play.Stories of all kinds give us the power to move, to inspire, to guide... Click To Tweet
User Story Mapping
Jeff Patton provided a way for agile development teams to tie user stories together in the form of a visual illustration: the user story map. This view of the customers’ journey through a product helps the team see the full narrative as well as to stay in tune with their end users.
As on any jaunt, a well-crafted map will help ensure a pleasant trip for all, perhaps with a little bit of adventure, a lot of reward, but definitely without any ordeal or descent into the underworld (unless of course your dev team is working on the re-release of Tomb Raider).
Building Competencies through Storytelling
The last, and certainly not least, principle behind the Manifesto for Agile Software Development is: “At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.”
At the end of an iteration an agile development team will find its way to a retrospective. There is no shortage of retro techniques for a team to dive into.
One of the classics is “Start, Stop, Continue.” Continue and stop tell a story about the past, while the start looks into the future, exploring what might be. And that future is where the team gets to make “more effective” fact, not fiction.
Another well-loved and used retro technique is “Sailboat/Motorboat,” which brings in the wonderful use of a metaphorical journey to help a team visualize and improve their working system.
Then there’s the team journey map technique. The retro journey map exercise reminds me of the Aboriginal Australians’ method of songlines.
Songlines enabled people to navigate by repeating the words of the song and were perhaps the original “journey map.” Alas, I have yet to find a place in agile software development where we utilize the art of telling a story through song in order to turn data into meaning (aside from karaoke on team night …).
Perhaps there’s a retrospective exercise tucked away in there somewhere …
Many models that involve story telling have emerged to help agile teams continuously improve towards ever-increasing levels of brilliance. A few examples are:
Using things like Lego® or spaghetti and marshmallows, teams use metaphors to explore complex emergent systems. While it’s marketed by the folks at Lego as a “radical, innovative” process, I question whether that’s really the case. Like a good epic tale, serious play allows us to use imagination to form images that make a situation come alive before it occurs in real life.
Play allows us to describe something, to create something, to challenge and test our assumptions and to explore possibilities; and we’re able to do it all without running the risk of those real-life consequences of failure and escaped defects.
Improv is a story with no script, but a story nonetheless. Folks like Robie Wood at ImprovAgility.com are training teams to resolve the ambiguity and the paradox that are inherent in the complex emergent domain of software development by using improv techniques to explore the stories as they unfold. He’s helping people develop plot lines they otherwise wouldn’t have seen.
And in Paul Goddard’s wonderful book “Improv(ing) Agile Teams,” the author devotes an entire chapter to storytelling. Goddard writes, “I believe that agile teams become more engaged when they harness the enjoyment and escapism that storytelling provides—when they re-imagine their projects as stories in their own right.”
Team Cohesion through Stories
The Agile Manifesto values “individuals and interactions over processes and tools.” If you’ve had the pleasure of working on a high-performing team, you’ll know the power of the emotional ties, the social bonds and the reciprocal trust that exists there.
And I bet you those connections developed from storytelling – around the watercooler, late nights over beers or in the #random channel on slack. Chatting not so much about code, but about all the other things we humans bring with us. Our personal histories, our values, our motivations. The things that make you you, and me me.
Using a storytelling exercise like personal maps allows newly formed teams to share quickly those backstories, those key plots that have made each of us who we are today. And with that understanding we can get to a place of greater collaboration, and more effective interaction.Team connections develop from storytelling - around the water cooler, late nights over beers or in the #random channel on slack. Click To Tweet
The Hero’s Journey and Organizational Transformation
The “hero’s journey” identified by Joseph Campbell, identifies the many patterns that appear across a broad spectrum of tales:
“A hero ventures forth from the world of common day into a region of supernatural wonder: fabulous forces are there encountered and a decisive victory is won: the hero comes back from this mysterious adventure with the power to bestow boons on his fellow man.”
(Dang, if that doesn’t sound like many a software development project I’ve been on!)
Perhaps the ultimate hero’s journey might be that of the organizational transformation. One that wants to transform from “here” to “there”—where there’s quite a distance to cover.
Harrison Owen reminds us of the power of the origin story in transformation via his seminal work “Spirit”:
“Stories are rather like maps; not much in themselves, but very helpful when crossing strange territories. Of course, we must always remember that the map is not the territory and when the map and the territory fail to agree, we probably need a new map. But even an old map can be useful for it brings to mind the differences between what we once saw and the way things are now. [Creating the] vision must be big, attractive and do-able – all three and all at once. Creating the vision is the first tangible step to be taken by leadership.”
And the best way to communicate that vision is through storytelling–a way for strategy to be shared across every level of an organization.
In an organizational transformation, leadership needs to outline the plot: keeping it simple, empowering the characters, and then leaving plenty of open space that invites participation, nay, demands it of the participants.
The stage should be set as it would be in improv, with just enough information to get the story started, but not a stitch more. Then everyone can “yes, and …” to keep things moving.
And it’s that big, attractive, doable story that helps organizations transform from where they started, reincorporating the past, their “origin,” and continuing on the path towards a future vision, just like a good hero’s journey.
The Happy Ending … Or Another Beginning?
Stories of all kinds give us the power to move, to inspire, to guide individuals, teams and organizations
Stories lay out the infinite possibilities of the future while keeping a connection to the past.
Stories give us the ability to comprehend the meaning behind those ochre marks on cave walls from 40,000 years ago, as well as those ones and zeros that we wrote just yesterday.
What stories will you tell tomorrow?
What do you think? Let me know in the comments below.