- Adds no value
- Causes uneven or inconsistent flow
- Results in over-exertion
Waste reduction is approached by:
- Developing an ability to see waste where it was not perceived before.
- Striving to reduce waste thru many small changes – kaizen
- Becoming aware when a local peak has been reach and further efforts provide diminishing returns
If all of us follow this practice, guaranteed we will deliver the right amount of value to our customers with the right amount of effort behind it.
The 3M’s of Waste
The idea of reducing waste (eliminating it completely actually) was brought to manufacturing in part by Henry Ford, and later in full byTaiichi Ohno. Ohno developed it as part of the Toyota Production System. (btw, Kaizen, WIP, etc., also have a direct lineage to TPS.)
Ohno was unrelenting in the way he approached continual optimization. To him, business (and life) was about looking for inefficiencies, and setting up a system to address and resolve issues for a more efficient process – resulting in added value and ultimately in more revenue and profitability.
The view from 10,000 feet:
- A process (development or manufacturing) adds value by producing something (goods or services) that customers actually want and are willing to pay for.
- Along the way the process necessarily consumes resources. (There ain’t no such thing as a free lunch – TANSTAAFL)
- Waste occurs when more resources are consumed than are necessary to produce the goods or services.
Let’s get down to the runway and look at the three kinds of waste TPS categorizes in detail. (We’ll use the Japanese terminology.)
Muda is made of two characters: 無 = none + 駄 = trivial or un-useful
It means an activity that is wasteful in that it doesn’t add value at all or is just plain unproductive in terms of time, resources and ultimately money.
- Multiple check-ins and compilation of code.
- Refactoring/rework – made necessary by delaying testing to the end of a development life cycle
- Rework due to incomplete, inaccurate, or misunderstood requirements/insufficient analysis
- Defects, rejects, rework due to poor architecture, software design or lack of planning
- Transportation – when making physical objects the movement of items between operations and locations is a waste as it adds zero value to the product. In software development it is ping ponging of cards where no value is added
- Overproducing / over-processing – building beyond what the customer/product needs. Cathedral building
- Analysis paralysis
- Fixing or dealing with broken stuff that hasn’t been maintained
- Overly detailed reports or planning
- Yak shaving
- I’m sure you have a few to add….
Mura is a single character: 斑 which means unevenness, inconsistency, irregularity,
It is a basis of “Just In Time” delivery – where the goal is to keep little or no inventory, and supplying the process with the right “stuff”, at the right time, in the right amount, and with the right level of quality. All of these measure – time, quantity, and quality are equally important. This “smooths” the process flow and minimizes unused inventory. No bottlenecks, no stoppages. It is one of the reasons WIP limits are so effective. Striving for frequent deliveries of items in “a done state” are key to identifying and eliminating Mura.
Muri is composed of 無 = none + 理 = reason
Literally “unreasonable” – in our context: overburden, strain or absurdity
- working on processes/ technologies one is not trained in
- poorly laid out or cluttered workplace
- unclear instructions / poor communication or request for action
- lack of proper tools and equipment
- unreliable resources – commit but don’t deliver, arrive late to a meeting, missing context, or forcing “repeats”
- unreliable processes / unreliable equipment or infrastructure
- attempting to work when tired or unable to focus
- not utilizing the time, skills, knowledge and talent of all available people
- barriers to communication
- excessive communication – not too short, not too long, excessive distribution list
- extra steps in a process, searching for misplaced files
- attending meetings you don’t need to attend
- I’m sure i’ve missed a few…
The Practice of Kaizen
We all can continuously develop our abilities to see waste where it was not perceived before. All it takes is a questioning mind that asks “Is what I think true…?” (A closed mind is certain it knows, and thus solidifies its reality.)
Which parts of a process add value and which do not? Once we learn to see the difference, and can separate value-adding work from non-value-adding. We can then look to further refine our vision:
- What “needs” to be done but is non-value-adding? For this type, seek input and opinion from others. Be prepared to defend it or suspend it.
- What is pure waste and can be removed from the process?
And with this new view, we can be a change agent and work smarter individually and collectively. The key is to be open minded and to seek solutions, not excuses nor complaints, and definitely not blame…
Small, Continual Changes
Our practice is something we should do everyday – not in bursts, and not in addition to “our day job”..
- Focus on one or two areas at a time – avoid brush fires, and avoid trying to swallow the sea.
- What can you eliminate, combine, re-arrange, simplify, standardize, automate?
- Strive for simplicity. Look for changes that don’t require huge effort.
- Think about, identify and eliminate many small instances of waste.
- Continually improve – things won’t be perfect in an instant, and when they get “perfect” they might not stay there very long.
When is Enough Enough?
Even though the process is never ending, there are local maximums that will be reached. At that local “peak” additional efforts will produce little to no value – diminishing returns.
Sounds like… you got it: muda! At that point, you can move on to something else, or pivot/rethink the now great process and aim your path to get to the top of the next mountain…
Kaikaku – a related term – shares the “kai” character for change, but kaku= transformation, so kaikaku means making fundamental or radical changes: rethinking the way we do things. And that will be the topic for another day…